Kennedy, J. R. (2002). The Effects of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious Experience on the Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem of Juvenile Delinquents and Disadvantaged Children. In Deasy, Richard J., (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, pp 119-120.

Kennedy, J. R. (2002). The Effects of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious Experience on the Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem of Juvenile Delinquents and Disadvantaged Children. In Deasy, Richard J., (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, pp 119-120.

Author Affiliations: Department of Music and Dance, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Artforms: Guitar, music
Program: Doctoral Dissertation
Program Description: Students were divided into five groups. All received 30-minute weekly guitar instruction and all but the control group also received 30 minutes of additional instruction, depending on the group. The groups were:
●  The Performance Only group received 30 minutes of instruction performance etiquette, strategies for achieving peak performance, memorization and musical expression then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Performance/Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of cognitive instruction (instruction in mental strategies for performing) and musical performance instruction (how to deal with performance anxiety) then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of the same cognitive instruction as the Performance/Cognitive group but were given no chance to rehearse these techniques or give solo performances.
●  The Vicarious Experience group received 30 minutes of watching performances followed by discussion of successful and failed performances.
●  The Control group received no arts instruction.
Program (Study) Location: Residential homes and juvenile detention centers Study Published: April 2002
Participant Type: Male juvenile offenders 8-19 years
Sample Size: 45
Data Type: Quantitative: Pre- and post-test using scales of self-esteem using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and musical self-efficacy (how confident participants felt about their musical ability)
Evaluation Focus: Effects of musical training and performance on self-efficacy and self-esteem of participants

Summary of Impact: Scores in Performance and Performance/Cognitive groups improved significantly. “The study demonstrated that guitar training coupled with repeated performance experiences improves both musical self-efficacy and self-esteem of these youth” (p. 119). Musical performance and musical performance coupled with cognitive strategies improve self-efficacy in at-risk youth. The study further suggests that “music training improves self esteem because the opportunity to perform helps youth overcome fears and helps them see that they can succeed” (p. 119).

KEYWORDS: guitar, juvenile, music, self-efficacy, self-esteem, youth

Lauby, J. L., LaPollo, A. B., Herbst, J. H., Painter, T. M., Batson, H., Pierre, A. & Milnamow, M. (October 2010). Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound: Efficacy of a Theater-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Delivered to High-Risk Male Adolescents in Juvenile Justice Settings. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(5), 402–416.

Lauby, J. L., LaPollo, A. B., Herbst, J. H., Painter, T. M., Batson, H., Pierre, A. & Milnamow, M. (October 2010). Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound: Efficacy of a Theater-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Delivered to High-Risk Male Adolescents in Juvenile Justice Settings. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(5), 402–416.

Author Affiliations: Public Health Management Corporation, Philadelphia (Lauby, LaPolllo, Batson, Pierre, Milnamow); Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (Herbst, Painter)
Artforms: Movement, sound, theater
Program: Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound (PALMS) Program Description: PALMS is a theater-based HIV prevention intervention designed for groups of 8 to 20 adolescents and led by a trained health educator. Trained actors portray dramatic performances of real-life situations often faced by adolescents and young adults. Games and role-playing exercises provide opportunities for participants to learn and practice communication and condom-use skills.
Program (Study) Location: Two juvenile justice facilities, Philadelphia, PA
Study Published: 2010
Participant Type: Institutionalized juvenile male offenders aged 12-18
Sample Size: 298
Data Type: Quantitative: nonrandomized concurrent comparison group design; assessment data collected at baseline immediately after the intervention Evaluation Focus: Effect of intervention on HIV and condom-use knowledge, changes in attitude towards HIV testing and persons living with HIV/AIDS, changes in condom use, changes in number of sexual partners (p. 404).

Summary of Impact: At 6-month follow-up, PALMS participants demonstrated greater increases in HIV and condom use knowledge and improved attitudes toward HIV testing and toward persons living with HIV/AIDS than did those in the comparison condition. PALMS participants were also significantly more likely to use a condom during their last sexual contact with a non-main female partner than comparison participants.

KEYWORDS: AIDS, condom use, drama, HIV, HIV testing, juvenile, movement, Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound sound, theater, youth

Lazzari, M.M., Amundson, K.A., & Jackson, R.L. (2005). “We Are More Than Jailbirds”: An Arts Program for Incarcerated Young Women. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 20(Summer), 169-185.

Lazzari, M.M., Amundson, K.A., & Jackson, R.L. (2005). “We Are More Than Jailbirds”: An Arts Program for Incarcerated Young Women. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 20(Summer), 169-185.

Author Affiliations: Tacoma Social Work Program, University of Washington Artforms: Painting, poetry, sculpture, writing
Program: NA
Program Description: Arts workshops culminating in works produced for museum display
Program (Study) Location: Juvenile detention center, Western United States Study Published: 2005
Participant Type: Juvenile female offenders aged 11-17
Sample Size: 31
Data Type: Qualitative: Semi-structured interviews with youth participants and in-depth interview with teaching artist
Evaluation Focus: Social skills, violent behavior, self-identity

Summary of Impact: Improved relationship of participants to the artist, to other participants, their artwork, their families and communities, and themselves; increased empathy, caring, sense of community; shared responsibility; greater sense of self; reduced violent behavior

KEYWORDS: behavior, caring, community, empathy, juvenile, painting, poetry, relationships, sculpture, self-esteem, self-identity, social skills, violence, writing, youth

Lear, Tereze. (2010). Why Are We Doing Art: The Impact of Sustained, Standards Based Art Instruction for Incarcerated Youth. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Sacramento.

Lear, Tereze. (2010). Why Are We Doing Art: The Impact of Sustained, Standards Based Art Instruction for Incarcerated Youth. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Sacramento.

Author Affiliations: California State University, Sacramento
Artforms: Visual arts
Program: Master’s thesis
Program Description: Teacher action research project for Masters of Art in Education
Program (Study) Location: Three maximum-security juvenile housing units
Study Published: Unpublished.
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile male offenders
Sample Size: 105
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Pre- and post-test reading scores, control group, two housing units had sustained standards based visual art, one did not and served as the control group.
Evaluation Focus: Impact of standards-based, sustained visual art instruction on reading achievement in incarcerated youth

Summary of Impact: Participants in the sustained, standards-based visual art course showed an average 11 months more growth comprehension than the control group (21 months versus 9 months, respectively).

KEYWORDS: art instruction, juvenile, reading comprehension, visual arts, youth

Little, Stephanie A. (2013). The Effects of an Arts Intervention on Recidivism. Abstract presented at Society for Research on Child Development Biennial Meeting, Seattle, Washington.

Little, Stephanie A. (2013). The Effects of an Arts Intervention on Recidivism. Abstract presented at Society for Research on Child Development Biennial Meeting, Seattle, Washington.

Author Affiliations: Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio
Artforms: performing arts, visual arts
Program: Project Jericho
Program Description: “Project Jericho provides in-depth performing and visual arts camps and workshops with a goal to make art and cultural experiences available to all youth and families in [the] community.”
Program (Study) Location: Clark County Juvenile Detention Center, Springfield, Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size: 457, 254 in art therapy group and 203 in control group. Intervention group: 74% male, 57% Caucasian, mean age 16.96; in control group: 66% male and 62% Caucasian, mean age 16.59.
Study Presented: 2013
Data Type: Quantitative Evaluation Focus: Recidivism rates

Summary of Impact: Recidivism rates for youth offenders participating in Project Jericho were lower than offenders who did not participate in the program. The effect was larger in males than females. The difference in recidivism rates were not statistically significant but it is important to note that youth referred to Project Jericho had a history of more stays in detention.

KEYWORDS: art therapy, juvenile, performing arts, recidivism, visual arts, youth

Maschi, T., Miller, J., Rowe, W., and Morgen, K. (2013). ​An Evaluation of a Cultural Arts Program for Youth in a Juvenile Justice Program: Technical Report.​ National Endowment for the Arts working paper.

Maschi, T., Miller, J., Rowe, W., and Morgen, K. (2013). ​An Evaluation of a Cultural Arts Program for Youth in a Juvenile Justice Program: Technical Report.​ National Endowment for the Arts working paper.

Author Affiliations: F​ordham University (Maschi); Community Research Center, Inc. (Miller); University of South Florida (Rowe); Centenary College (Morgen) Artforms:​ Media arts, music, performing arts, visual arts
Program:​ ​Prodigy Cultural Arts Program, University of South Florida
Program Description:​ ​The Prodigy Cultural Arts Program is a diversion program for youth aged 7-17 who have been adjudicated in the juvenile justice system, offering classes in the visual, performing, musical and media arts as an alternative to court. Classes are taught by master artists. The program runs for eight weeks, with youth attending three hours per week. Goals are to build pro-social skills and reduce recidivism. Prodigy also has a prevention program geared to non-offending at-risk youth in the community.
Program (Study) Location:​ 7​ counties, West Central Florida Study Published:​ December 2013
Participant Type:​ ​Adjudicated and at-risk youth aged 7-17 Sample Size: ​85 (53 in the intervention group)
Data Type:​ Mixed Method: Structured interviews, classroom monitoring tool, comparison group composed of students who had been suspended twice; pre- and post-test with standardized measures assessing social skills, mental health, risk behavior, self-regulation skills
Evaluation Focus:

  • Changes in mental health and social skills among youth who had participated in the program versus those who had not
  • Whether individual characteristics such as age, gender, race and ethnicity are related to any changes in mental health symptoms and social skills
  • What mental health variables and social skills are more and less likely to be positively influenced by the art programming

Summary of Impact: T​rends towards improvement (especially in females) but no significant differences in pre- and post-test between groups in social skills or mental health improvement. The authors conclude that “a short term art program impact on social skills and mental health is modest at best” (p. 31). They speculate findings may have been the result of sample size and/or selection bias.

KEYWORDS:​ ​identity,​ ​juvenile, media arts, mental health, music, performing arts, Prodigy Cultural Arts Program​, risk behavior, self-regulation, social skills, visual arts, youth

Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2014). Voices From Inside: Preliminary Results of a Transformational Justice Art Program for Incarcerated Youth. Internet Journal of Restorative Justice, October 2014.

Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2014). Voices From Inside: Preliminary Results of a Transformational Justice Art Program for Incarcerated Youth. Internet Journal of Restorative Justice, October 2014.

Author Affiliations: Franklin University, Columbus, Ohio
Artforms: Visual art
Program: Voices From Inside
Program Description: Three exhibits of inmate art held in 2012, 2013 and 2014, partnership of Franklin University and Ohio Department of Youth Services
Program (Study) Location: Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size:
Study Published: 2014, ongoing study
Data Type: Qualitative and Quantitative including one-on-one interviews and the following surveys: Youth Exhibitor Survey and Interview Survey consisting of nine Likert-type questions and one narrative for juvenile offender artists; Community Attendee Survey with adaptations from life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) for community attendees.
Evaluation Focus: Changes in juvenile offender and community attitudes.

Summary of Impact:
●  2013 survey of youth participants found that 81% of youth participants cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion and increased self-esteem.
●  2014 survey of youth participants found that 93% cited decreased stress along with increase in self-esteem, pride and recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth.
●  In different surveys 40%-53% of community attendees reported positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders.
●  Qualitative responses were similarly positive.

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth

Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2016). Voices From Inside: The Power of Art To Transform and Restore. Journal of Correctional Education, 67(1), 58-74.

Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2016). Voices From Inside: The Power of Art To Transform and Restore. Journal of Correctional Education, 67(1), 58-74.

Author Affiliations: Franklin University, Columbus, Ohio
Artforms: Visual art
Program: Voices From Inside
Program Description: Three exhibits of inmate art held in 2012, 2013 and 2014, partnership of Franklin University and Ohio Department of Youth Services Program (Study) Location: Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size: 183, unclear if any duplicates
Study Published: 2016, ongoing study
Data Type: Qualitative and Quantitative including one-on-one interviews and the following surveys: Youth Exhibitor Survey and Interview Survey consisting of nine Likert-type questions and one narrative for juvenile offender artists; Community Attendee Survey with adaptations from life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) for community attendees.
Evaluation Focus: Changes in juvenile offender and community attitudes.

Summary of Impact:
●  2013 survey of youth participants found that 81% of youth participants cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion and increased self-esteem.
●  2014 survey of youth participants found that 93% cited decreased stress along with increase in self-esteem, pride and recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth.
●  In different surveys 40%-53% of community attendees reported positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders.
●  Qualitative responses were similarly positive.

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth

Nelson, D. (1997). High-risk adolescent males, self-efficacy, and choral performance: An investigation. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Nelson, D. (1997). High-risk adolescent males, self-efficacy, and choral performance: An investigation. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Author Affiliations: Arizona State University
Artforms: Choirs, music, singing
Program: Doctoral dissertation
Program Description: Juvenile choir
Program (Study) Location: Adolescent residential treatment facility, Arizona
Study Published: 1997
Participant Type: Adjudicated males aged 11-17
Sample Size: 40 (21 in intervention group, 19 in control group)
Data Type: Qualitative: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory of Self-Efficacy, research was augmented by the use of the Sherer and Maddux’s Self-Efficacy Scale
Evaluation Focus: Music as an affective intervention for high-risk adolescent males

Summary of Impact: The author stated that the choral program was found to be an affective intervention for this population. Participants reported that performing in the choir was a special experience, that moments in the choir were “wonderful, difficult to verbalize and . . . deeply personal” (p. iv). They also reported that the relationships developed in choir were different than those with other residents of the facility.

KEYWORDS: affect, choirs, juvenile, music, singing, youth

Oakey, M.K. (1980). Evaluation: Lorton Art Program, Inc. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice/National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Oakey, M.K. (1980). Evaluation: Lorton Art Program, Inc. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice/National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Author Affiliations: Office of Resource Management, District of Columbia Department of Corrections
Artforms: Fine arts
Program: District of Columbia Department of Corrections
Program Description: The Lorton Art Program, Inc. is a comprehensive fine arts program which uses art education and individual skills development to rehabilitate participants. Classes are conducted four days a week for a minimum of two and one-half hours per session at the Lorton minimum-security facility and youth centers I and II.
Program (Study) Location: Lorton Correctional Facility, District of Columbia
Study Published: January 1980
Participant Type: Juvenile offenders (the program may have also included an adult component)
Sample Size: 372
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative
Study Design: Data were obtained from the art director’s files and her evaluation of each student’s performance, District of Columbia Department of Corrections records (inmate characteristics, parole violations, and new convictions), results of an institutional staff survey, and participant questionnaires.
Evaluation Focus: Recidivism, student characteristics, student program performance, institutional staff opinions of the program, and student attitudes toward the program

Summary of Impact:
●  A comparison of program participants and nonparticipants provided no conclusive evidence that participation in the arts program reduced recidivism (p. 29).
●  After four months, a lower percentage of “failure” for program participants (30%). released through a community correctional center, compared to nonparticipants (41%).
●  Evaluation of program by treatment and administrative staff was highly favorable, (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  Anonymous survey of participants showed less enthusiasm for the program but was generally favorable (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  The only measure for which a correlation could be established with performance on parole was “student’s reaction to the program.” Degree of involvement, prior training, interest level, progress achieved, and talent were not related to post-release performance (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  Authors concluded that the program was sufficiently effective for the Department of Corrections to consider assuming all or a major portion of the program’s funding.

KEYWORDS: fine arts, juvenile, The Lorton Art Program, Inc., parole, recidivism, youth