44.

44. Lear, Tereze. (2010). Why Are We Doing Art: The Impact of Sustained, Standards Based Art Instruction for Incarcerated Youth. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Sacramento.

Author Affiliations: California State University, Sacramento
Artforms: Visual arts
Program: Master’s thesis
Program Description: Teacher action research project for Masters of Art in Education
Program (Study) Location: Three maximum-security juvenile housing units
Study Published: Unpublished.
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile male offenders
Sample Size: 105
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Pre- and post-test reading scores, control group, two housing units had sustained standards based visual art, one did not and served as the control group.
Evaluation Focus: Impact of standards-based, sustained visual art instruction on reading achievement in incarcerated youth

Summary of Impact: Participants in the sustained, standards-based visual art course showed an average 11 months more growth comprehension than the control group (21 months versus 9 months, respectively).

KEYWORDS: art instruction, juvenile, reading comprehension, visual arts, youth

45.

45. Little, Stephanie A. (2013). The Effects of an Arts Intervention on Recidivism. Abstract presented at Society for Research on Child Development Biennial Meeting, Seattle, Washington.

Author Affiliations: Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio
Artforms: performing arts, visual arts
Program: Project Jericho
Program Description: “Project Jericho provides in-depth performing and visual arts camps and workshops with a goal to make art and cultural experiences available to all youth and families in [the] community.”
Program (Study) Location: Clark County Juvenile Detention Center, Springfield, Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size: 457, 254 in art therapy group and 203 in control group. Intervention group: 74% male, 57% Caucasian, mean age 16.96; in control group: 66% male and 62% Caucasian, mean age 16.59.
Study Presented: 2013
Data Type: Quantitative Evaluation Focus: Recidivism rates

Summary of Impact: Recidivism rates for youth offenders participating in Project Jericho were lower than offenders who did not participate in the program. The effect was larger in males than females. The difference in recidivism rates were not statistically significant but it is important to note that youth referred to Project Jericho had a history of more stays in detention.

KEYWORDS: art therapy, juvenile, performing arts, recidivism, visual arts, youth

46.

46. Maschi, T., Miller, J., Rowe, W., and Morgen, K. (2013). ​An Evaluation of a Cultural Arts Program for Youth in a Juvenile Justice Program: Technical Report.​ National Endowment for the Arts working paper.

Author Affiliations: F​ordham University (Maschi); Community Research Center, Inc. (Miller); University of South Florida (Rowe); Centenary College (Morgen) Artforms:​ Media arts, music, performing arts, visual arts
Program:​ ​Prodigy Cultural Arts Program, University of South Florida
Program Description:​ ​The Prodigy Cultural Arts Program is a diversion program for youth aged 7-17 who have been adjudicated in the juvenile justice system, offering classes in the visual, performing, musical and media arts as an alternative to court. Classes are taught by master artists. The program runs for eight weeks, with youth attending three hours per week. Goals are to build pro-social skills and reduce recidivism. Prodigy also has a prevention program geared to non-offending at-risk youth in the community.
Program (Study) Location:​ 7​ counties, West Central Florida Study Published:​ December 2013
Participant Type:​ ​Adjudicated and at-risk youth aged 7-17 Sample Size: ​85 (53 in the intervention group)
Data Type:​ Mixed Method: Structured interviews, classroom monitoring tool, comparison group composed of students who had been suspended twice; pre- and post-test with standardized measures assessing social skills, mental health, risk behavior, self-regulation skills
Evaluation Focus:

  • Changes in mental health and social skills among youth who had participated in the program versus those who had not
  • Whether individual characteristics such as age, gender, race and ethnicity are related to any changes in mental health symptoms and social skills
  • What mental health variables and social skills are more and less likely to be positively influenced by the art programming
    Summary of Impact: T​rends towards improvement (especially in females) but no significant differences in pre- and post-test between groups in social skills or mental health improvement. The authors conclude that “a short term art program impact on social skills and mental health is modest at best” (p. 31). They speculate findings may have been the result of sample size and/or selection bias.
    KEYWORDS:​ ​identity,​ ​juvenile, media arts, mental health, music, performing arts, Prodigy Cultural Arts Program​, risk behavior, self-regulation, social skills, visual arts, youth

47.

47. Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2014). Voices From Inside: Preliminary Results of a Transformational Justice Art Program for Incarcerated Youth. Internet Journal of Restorative Justice, October 2014.

Author Affiliations: Franklin University, Columbus, Ohio
Artforms: Visual art
Program: Voices From Inside
Program Description: Three exhibits of inmate art held in 2012, 2013 and 2014, partnership of Franklin University and Ohio Department of Youth Services
Program (Study) Location: Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size:
Study Published: 2014, ongoing study
Data Type: Qualitative and Quantitative including one-on-one interviews and the following surveys: Youth Exhibitor Survey and Interview Survey consisting of nine Likert-type questions and one narrative for juvenile offender artists; Community Attendee Survey with adaptations from life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) for community attendees.
Evaluation Focus: Changes in juvenile offender and community attitudes.

Summary of Impact:
●  2013 survey of youth participants found that 81% of youth participants cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion and increased self-esteem.
●  2014 survey of youth participants found that 93% cited decreased stress along with increase in self-esteem, pride and recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth.
●  In different surveys 40%-53% of community attendees reported positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders.
●  Qualitative responses were similarly positive.

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth

48.

48. Miner-Romanoff, Karen. (2016). Voices From Inside: The Power of Art To Transform and Restore. Journal of Correctional Education, 67(1), 58-74.

Author Affiliations: Franklin University, Columbus, Ohio
Artforms: Visual art
Program: Voices From Inside
Program Description: Three exhibits of inmate art held in 2012, 2013 and 2014, partnership of Franklin University and Ohio Department of Youth Services Program (Study) Location: Ohio
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents
Sample Size: 183, unclear if any duplicates
Study Published: 2016, ongoing study
Data Type: Qualitative and Quantitative including one-on-one interviews and the following surveys: Youth Exhibitor Survey and Interview Survey consisting of nine Likert-type questions and one narrative for juvenile offender artists; Community Attendee Survey with adaptations from life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ) for community attendees.
Evaluation Focus: Changes in juvenile offender and community attitudes.

Summary of Impact:
●  2013 survey of youth participants found that 81% of youth participants cited as benefits cooperation with others, task completion and increased self-esteem.
●  2014 survey of youth participants found that 93% cited decreased stress along with increase in self-esteem, pride and recognition of the ability to reach a goal from completing, exhibiting and selling their art to benefit a charity for at-risk youth.
●  In different surveys 40%-53% of community attendees reported positive attitude changes toward juvenile offenders.
●  Qualitative responses were similarly positive.

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth

49.

49. Nelson, D. (1997). High-risk adolescent males, self-efficacy, and choral performance: An investigation. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Author Affiliations: Arizona State University
Artforms: Choirs, music, singing
Program: Doctoral dissertation
Program Description: Juvenile choir
Program (Study) Location: Adolescent residential treatment facility, Arizona
Study Published: 1997
Participant Type: Adjudicated males aged 11-17
Sample Size: 40 (21 in intervention group, 19 in control group)
Data Type: Qualitative: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory of Self-Efficacy, research was augmented by the use of the Sherer and Maddux’s Self-Efficacy Scale
Evaluation Focus: Music as an affective intervention for high-risk adolescent males

Summary of Impact: The author stated that the choral program was found to be an affective intervention for this population. Participants reported that performing in the choir was a special experience, that moments in the choir were “wonderful, difficult to verbalize and . . . deeply personal” (p. iv). They also reported that the relationships developed in choir were different than those with other residents of the facility.

KEYWORDS: affect, choirs, juvenile, music, singing, youth

50.

50. Oakey, M.K. (1980). Evaluation: Lorton Art Program, Inc. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice/National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Author Affiliations: Office of Resource Management, District of Columbia Department of Corrections
Artforms: Fine arts
Program: District of Columbia Department of Corrections
Program Description: The Lorton Art Program, Inc. is a comprehensive fine arts program which uses art education and individual skills development to rehabilitate participants. Classes are conducted four days a week for a minimum of two and one-half hours per session at the Lorton minimum-security facility and youth centers I and II.
Program (Study) Location: Lorton Correctional Facility, District of Columbia
Study Published: January 1980
Participant Type: Juvenile offenders (the program may have also included an adult component)
Sample Size: 372
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative
Study Design: Data were obtained from the art director’s files and her evaluation of each student’s performance, District of Columbia Department of Corrections records (inmate characteristics, parole violations, and new convictions), results of an institutional staff survey, and participant questionnaires.
Evaluation Focus: Recidivism, student characteristics, student program performance, institutional staff opinions of the program, and student attitudes toward the program

Summary of Impact:
●  A comparison of program participants and nonparticipants provided no conclusive evidence that participation in the arts program reduced recidivism (p. 29).
●  After four months, a lower percentage of “failure” for program participants (30%). released through a community correctional center, compared to nonparticipants (41%).
●  Evaluation of program by treatment and administrative staff was highly favorable, (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  Anonymous survey of participants showed less enthusiasm for the program but was generally favorable (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  The only measure for which a correlation could be established with performance on parole was “student’s reaction to the program.” Degree of involvement, prior training, interest level, progress achieved, and talent were not related to post-release performance (Executive Summary, no page number).
●  Authors concluded that the program was sufficiently effective for the Department of Corrections to consider assuming all or a major portion of the program’s funding.

KEYWORDS: fine arts, juvenile, The Lorton Art Program, Inc., parole, recidivism, youth

51.

51. Rapp-Paglicci, L., Stewart, C., and Rowe, W. S. (Winter 2009). Evaluating the Effects of the Prodigy Cultural Arts Program on Symptoms of Mental Health Disorders in At-Risk and Adjudicated Youths. Best Practices in Mental Health: An International Journal, 5(1), 65-73.

Author Affiliations: School of Social Work, University of South Florida Study Published: 2009
Artforms: Cultural arts, media arts, music, performing arts, visual arts Program: Prodigy Cultural Arts Program
Program Description: The Prodigy Cultural Arts Program is a diversion program for youth aged 7-17 who have been adjudicated in the juvenile justice system, offering classes in the visual, performing, musical and media arts as an alternative to court. Programs, taught by master artists, run for eight weeks, with youth attending three hours per week. Goals are to build pro-social skills and reduce recidivism. Prodigy also has a prevention program geared to non-offending at-risk youth in the community.
Program (Study) Location: West Central Florida
Study Published: Winter 2009
Participant Type: Adjudicated male and female juvenile offenders 11-18 years Sample Size: 337
Data Type: Quasi-experimental pre and post test using MAYSI-2 (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument), Family Assessment Device to measure symptoms of mental health disorders (subscales: anger/irritability, somatic complaints, depression/anxiety, suicidal ideations, substance use), and Delinquency Index.
Evaluation Focus: Program’s effect on participants’ mental health-disorders controlling for demographic factors

Summary of Impact:
●  Significant decrease in symptoms of mental health disorders, notably anger/irritability and anxiety/depression.
●  Changes in somatic complaints, hypothesized to be related to mental-health issues or stressful environmental conditions.
● Females, who tended to score higher pretest on depression/anxiety scores, may have experienced a greater reduction in anxiety/depression symptoms than their male counterparts.

KEYWORDS: cultural arts, delinquency, family functioning, identity, juvenile, media arts, mental health, music, performing arts, Prodigy Cultural Arts Program, visual arts, youth

52.

52. Ross, J. Art and Community: Creating Knowledge Through Service in Dance. In Deasy, R. J. (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development (p. 23). Washington, D.C.: Arts Education Partnership.

Author Affiliations: NA
Artforms: Dance
Program: NA
Program Description: Jazz and hip-hop dance classes
Program (Study)Location: NA
Study Presented: 2000
Participant Type: At-risk and Incarcerated adolescents aged 13-17
Sample Size: 60
Data Type: Qualitative: Teacher observation, interviews, reflection journals, in-class discussions, written syntheses
Evaluation Focus: This study sought to address the following questions: How does dance instruction affect self-perception and social development for at-risk and incarcerated adolescents? How does participant/observation research by undergraduates in a dance-centered service-learning project affect perceptions of the purposes of arts generally and dance specifically in the undergraduates’ and the lives of others? (p.12)

Summary of Impact: Produced hypotheses about why dance may be a medium particularly well suited to “fostering positive self-perception and social development for disenfranchised adolescents,” including the influence of teachers and teaching styles generally employed in dance; culturally valued leisure activities; the release of physical and psychological stress in which “expression, not conquest” is the activity’s goal (in contrast to team sports); the focus of instruction on practicing non-linguistic bodily expression, which is a primary vehicle through which maladaptive social behaviors are conveyed; and the need and opportunity in dance to express individuality within a group, which provides practice with issues central to developing positive social identity and adaptability” (p.23).
●  Dance may be a medium well suited to fostering positive self-perception and social development for disenfranchised adolescents.
●  Congruence of dance, service (providing data to prison administration about the dance program’s effectiveness), and research (placing college dance students in a social/therapeutic context and requiring reflection about impact and uses of the discipline) is an effective tool for advancing college students’ learning.

KEYWORDS: dance, hip-hop, jazz, juvenile, service learning, youth

53.

53. School Board of Palm Beach County Department of Alternative Education. (2001). Analysis of Student Self-Assessments of Their Social Talents and Art Skills Taken Before and After Attending the “Artists-in-Residence” Programs at the Detention and Corrections in Palm Beach County. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs. October 29, 2001.

Author Affiliations: NA
Artforms: dance, drama, music, visual arts
Program: Artists-in-Residence Alternative Arts Program
Program Description: Artists-in-Residence programs awarded to juvenile justice programs from VSA arts of Florida in partnership with the Florida Education Foundation.
Program (Study) Location: Roosevelt Full-Service Center, FIG, Palm Beach Youth Center, Palm Beach Half-Way House, all in Palm Beach County, Florida. Participant Type: incarcerated and adjudicated youth
Study Published: 2001
Data Type: pre- and post-self assessment questionnaires one for Social Talents and the other for Art Skills.
Evaluation Focus: participants’ social and artistic ability.

Summary of Impact:
●  Roosevelt Full-Service Center:
○  Substantial increase in social behavior
○  increase in art skills reported by most students
●  Florida Institute for Girls:
○ Overall decrease in both negative and positive responses, fear of authority figures decreased

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth