37. Baker, S. and Homan, S. (2007). Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention. Journal of Youth Studies, 10, (4), 459-476.

Author Affiliations: University of Leeds, UK (Baker); Cultural Industries & Practices Research Centre, University of Newcastle, Australia (Homan)
Artforms: Guitar, hip-hop, keyboard, music, rap, song-writing
Program: Genuine Voices
Program (Study) Location: Short-term (90-day) secure treatment center in Massachusetts
Program Description: Genuine Voices conducts music programs for youth in juvenile detention centers and other educational and institutional settings in the U.S. and worldwide. Its mission is to prevent youth violence and crime and foster youths’ ability to plan and make “positive life decisions.” The juvenile offender program consists of piano, guitar, rap and sequencing lessons, both group and individual, twice weekly. Youths who have earned good-behavior privileges may volunteer to participate in the program (p. 464).
Study Published: September 2007
Participant Type: Juvenile male offenders
Data Type: Qualitative: Ethnographic methodology including observation, interviews and program evaluation.
Evaluation Focus: Benefits of popular music programs in fostering individual creativity, self-esteem, identity and social communication

Summary of Impact: Researchers concluded that the program aided individual and collective communication and community-building and improved participants’ organizational skills, self-esteem, self-control, focus and sense of achievement. Participants produced a CD recording at the end of the program.

KEYWORDS: communication, community, focus, hip-hop, identity, juvenile, music, rap, self-control, self-esteem, sense of achievement, youth


38. Center for the Study of Art & Community. [n.d]. CORE Arts Program Report: 1999-2007. Prepared for the Mississippi Arts Commission by the Center for the Study of Art & Community.

Author Affiliations: Center for the Study of Art and Community
Artforms: Biography, ceramics, collage, drawing, charcoal, furniture decoration, instrument making, mask-making, metal sculpture, music, painting, papier-mache, performance, poetry, watercolor, woodworking, writing
Program: CORE Arts Program, administered by Communities in Schools
Project (Study) Location: 25 sites (2 youth corrections facilities, 1 detention center, 8 adolescent offender programs, 7 alternative schools and 7 Boys & Girls Clubs) in 15 Mississippi counties
Program Description: CORE Arts provides ceramics, creative writing, music,visual and other arts programs to Mississippi youth, both adjudicated and non-adjudicated, in correctional settings, aftercare programs, and in alternative school settings. The program focused on “educational enhancement and workforce training through arts-based curricula” (p. 6). The CORE Arts initiative grew to include nearly 2500 students (2005-07) statewide, benefitting young people in communities throughout Mississippi. The report documents the program’s development and summarizes research studies conducted between 1999 and 2007.
Study Published: 2007
Participant Type: Youth 12-18 years who had committed status offenses; staff members
Sample Size: 308 participants and 101 staff members
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: interviews with program participants and administrators, teachers, counselors and correctional officers; surveys, review of reports, publications and documentary information from both the Mississippi Arts Commission and program sites; data on academic and behavioral progress
Evaluation Focus: Program’s impact on critical success indicators for both youth justice/services and arts program providers. From 1999-2007, the program evaluation addressed:
●  What goals do the various partners and participants have for the CORE Arts program?
●  To what degree have these goals been achieved?
●  What CORE Arts program characteristics (i.e. curriculum, staffing, and program design) advanced or inhibited achievement of these goals?
●  How can the Core Arts partners improve their efforts to evaluate the accomplishment of these goals?
●  How can the partners sustain the CORE Arts program beyond the initialresearch development phase supported by the Mississippi Arts Commission?

Summary of Impact: Evaluations were conducted from 2002-2007, and included: tracking impact on student, impact on staff, and the program characteristics that supported the articulated outcomes. Results showed that youth participants showed a decrease in the incidences of violence, and improvements in behavior. Participants demonstrated a “connection between being in control of an artistic product and taking control over their lives” (p. 6). The summary of the evaluations revealed the following additional impacts:
●  71% improvement in attendance (p. 18).
●  58% reduction in referrals for behavioral problems (p. 18).
●  Counselor ratings were 5.07% higher than during the three prior months of regular program offerings (p. 18).
●  Positive correlation between time spent in program and improved attitudes and behavior.
●  Improved overall academic performance.
●  15% improvement in grade average compared with pre-program performance (p. 19).
●  Improved writing scores.
●  Improved reading skills:
○  83% of students at one site improved their reading skills by at least one grade level.
○  50% at this site improved their reading skills by two-to-four grade levels (p. 19).
●  Improved English grades:
○ 75% of students at one site improved grades by at least one letter grade, significantly more than the control group which did not receive creative writing (p. 19).
●  Enhanced self-control and cooperation.
●  Decreased violent behavior and idle time.
●  Reduced tensions between students and staff.
●  Improved communication, planning and cooperation between staff members.
●  86% of participating artists reported positive impact on them and their work.
●  Improved program work environments.
●  Staff viewed youth more positively.
●  Reduced tension for both staff and participants.
●  Opportunities for positive staff/student interaction.

KEYWORDS: academic performance, attendance, attitude, behavior, biography, ceramics, collage, CORE Arts , drawing, charcoal, furniture decoration, instrument making, juvenile, mask-making, metal sculpture, music, painting, papier-mache, performance, poetry, self-control, self-esteem, violence, watercolor, woodworking, writing, youth


39. Clawson, H. and Coolbaugh, K,. (2001). YouthARTS Development Project Program Evaluation. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs: Juvenile Justice Bulletin. May 2001.

Author Affiliations: Caliber Associates, Fairfax, VA
Artforms: The project’s three sites included
●  Atlanta: ceramics, computer graphics, drama, furniture design and application, mosaics, photography
●  Portland: drama, photography, poetry, printmaking, videography
●  San Antonio: creative writing, dance, drama, storytelling, visual arts
Program: YouthARTS Development Project
Program Description:
●  Atlanta: Art-at-Work provided one group of truant youth aged 14 to 16 with art instruction, job training, and literacy education over a 2-year period.
●  Portland: youth produced and administered a public arts project from design to production and public exhibition.
● San Antonio: after-school arts education program for youth at 7 schools.
Program (Study) Location:
●  Atlanta, Georgia: Art-at-Work/Fulton County Arts Council
●  Portland, Oregon: Youth Arts Public Art/Regional Arts and Culture Council
●  San Antonio, Texas: Urban smARTS/San Antonio Department of Arts and Cultural Affairs
Study Published: May 2001
Participant Type:
●  Atlanta: truant youth first-time offenders aged 14-16 referred by probation officers
●  Portland: adjudicated youth (excluding sex-offenders) aged 14-16 referred by probation officers
●  San Antonio: non adjudicated, at-risk youth aged 10-12 referred by teachers, principals and self-referrals
Sample Size:
●  Atlanta: 15 participants per program period; 7 in participant group and 10 in control group completed evaluation
●  Portland: 15 youth per unit per session; findings provided for 21
●  San Antonio: 60 youth at each of 7 schools; five schools participated in evaluation, complete data available for 22-112 participants
Data Type: Qualitative: Cross-site evaluation using participant and probation officer/caseworker feedback, skill assessment instruments, focus group interviews, academic data, court data. Data collected pre- and post-program on participants and control group.
Evaluation Focus:
●  Outcome component of evaluation assessed program effects on art knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of participants
●  Process component looked at program implementation and operations

Summary of Impact: Separate evaluations were completed at each of the three sites:
●  Atlanta:
○  85.7% of youth were communicating effectively with peers at the end of the program, up from 28.6% at the beginning of the program.
○  Program participants had, on average, fewer court referrals during the program period than the non-arts comparison group (1.3 and 2.0 respectively). This despite the fact that arts program participants had, on average more court referrals than the comparison group at the start of the program (6.9 and 2.2 referrals, respectively).
○  50% of program participants had committed new offenses during the program period versus 78.6% in the control group.

●  Portland:
○  100% of program participants demonstrated an ability to cooperate with others at the end of the 12-week program versus 43% at the start of the program
○  31.6% of program participants’ attitude towards school improved compared with 7.7% in the comparison group.
○  22% of program participants had a new court referral compared with 47% of comparison group.
○ The level and type of offense committed during the program period were less severe than prior offenses.

● San Antonio:
○ 85% of participants were able to work on tasks from start to finish at the end of the program versus 72% at the beginning.
○ 82% demonstrated the skills necessary to produce quality artwork up from 65% at the start of the program.
○ 16.4% of the arts program participants had a decrease in delinquent behavior compared with 3.4% of the control group.

KEYWORDS: ceramics, computer graphics, creative writing, dance, drama, entrepreneurial skills, furniture design and application, juvenile, life skills, mosaics, photography, poetry, printmaking, prosocial skills, storytelling, videography, visual arts, vocational skills, youth, YouthARTS Development Project


40. Cleveland, W. (2001). An evaluation of the Jackson County Children’s Services Coalition CORE Arts Program 2001-2002. Minneapolis, MN: Center for the Study of Art & Community.

Author Affiliations: Center for the Study of Art & Community
Artforms: Ceramics, creative writing, music, visual arts
Program: Jackson County Children’s Services Coalition, CORE Arts Program Project (Study) Location: Detention center, public and private schools, community-based organization, religious institution, recreation center, arts organization, Jackson County, Mississippi
Project Description: CORE Arts provided ceramics, creative writing, music and visual arts programs to Mississippi youth.
Participant Type: Youth offenders, middle- and high-school students
Sample Size: 89 program participants and 22 staff members
Study Published: 2001
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Non-experimental consisting of Interviews/focus groups and survey/questionnaires with participants, administrators, teachers, counselors and correctional officers; daily student incident reports.
Evaluation Focus: Goals of participants and partners; extent to which goals had been achieved; which program characteristics advanced or inhibited achievement of goals

Summary of Impact:
●  15% improvement in participants’ grade averaged compared with pre-program performance.
●  Improvements in student behavior including cooperation and self-control.
●  58% reduction in behavior referrals compared to pre-program performance.
●  Student interest in other programs.
●  High student satisfaction with programs.
● Overall “positive impact” on students.

KEYWORDS: academic performance, behavior, ceramics, CORE Arts Program, creative writing, juvenile, music, violence, visual arts, youth


41. Ezell, M., & Levy, M. (2003). An Evaluation of an Arts Program for Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Correctional Education, 54(3), 108-114.

Author Affiliations: Academic (Ezell) and Social Work Administration (Levy)
Artforms: Cartoon art, collage, creative writing, drama, film, graphic design, multimedia, murals, music, papier-mache, photography, poetry, television, visual arts, wood sculpture
Program: A Changed World
Program Description: A Changed World (ACW) facilitates teaching and interaction between artists and institutionalized juvenile offenders. The purpose of the program is to reduce recidivism of juvenile offenders (p. 109). Major objectives include: I) to inculcate cultural and community awareness: 2) to lessen the risks of inappropriate behavior within the institutional environment: 3) to develop vocational and academic skills that will motivate and assist the student with the search for employment/career; and 4) to reduce the likelihood to reoffend after release (p.109-110). Artists conduct workshops ranging from two weeks to two months. During the first and second evaluation years (1996 and 1997), participants created a touring multimedia exhibit that included curriculum materials for use by teachers and counselors. During the third year of the evaluation (1998), participants produced a film for television.
Program (Study) Location: Juvenile correctional facilities, Washington State Study Published: 2003
Participant Type: Institutionalized juvenile offenders
Sample Size:
●  First Year Evaluation (1996): 86
●  Second Year Evaluation (1997): 57
●  Third Year Evaluation (1998): 41
Data Type: Mixed Method: Quantitative and Qualitative
●  First Year Evaluation: Youth self-reports and staff reports using a pre-and post-test multi-item scale design to measure changes in self-esteem. peer relations, cultural awareness, and community identity.
●  Second and Third Year Evaluations: open-ended survey of participants; teacher assessments; artist observations; staff reports on misbehavior; court records.
Evaluation Focus: The evaluation sought to examine the potential of the arts to impact youth behavior during incarceration and after release. The evaluation asked: “1. Do students learn new academic and vocational skills from the art workshops? 2. Does institutional behavior of program participants improve during their workshops? 3. How does the recidivism rate of program participants compare to nonparticipants (p.110)?

Summary of Impact:
●  First-Year Findings:
○  No statistically significant change in youth’s self-esteem, peer relations or cultural awareness during the two weeks duration of the program.
○  Ability to differentiate between life in and out of an institution improved in 31.7% of participants.
○  Moderate or substantial progress on all learning goals, especially academic goals including increases in 86 different academic skills.
●  Second and Third Year Findings:
○  Artists perceived that almost all of youth had accomplished almost all of their goals.
○  61.3% of youth said they learned concrete vocational skills.
○  70.3% reported positive feelings about their projects.
○  17.6% had feelings of accomplishment.
○  63% reduction in behavioral incidents pre-workshops versus during workshops.
○  Of 24 youth followed for recidivism, 16.7% recidivated within six months versus 32.9% for a control group of youth released in 1992.

KEYWORDS: academic, A Changed World, attitude, behavior, cartoon art, collaboration, collage, community, confidence, creative writing, cultural awareness, drama, employment, film, graphic design, identity, juvenile, misbehavior, multimedia, murals, music, papier-mache, peer relations, photography, poetry, recidivism, rules violations, self-esteem, skills development, television, visual arts, vocational skills, wood sculpture, youth


42. Greenbaum, Chloe A. and Javdani, Shabnam (2017). Expressive writing intervention promotes resilience among juvenile justice-involved youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 73(C), 220-229.

Author Affiliations: New York University, New York City
Artforms: expressive writing
Program: WRITE ON (Writing and Reflecting on Identity To Empower Ourselves as Narrators)
Program Description: Started in 2014, “WRITE ON is a writing-based mental health intervention designed for youth in confinement . . . WRITE ON encourages reflection and self-expression within a supportive group setting” (https://wp.nyu.edu/steinhardt-corelab/interventions/intervention-descriptions /). The program involves 12 sessions over six weeks, each session 90 minutes long and each week focusing on a specific theme such as emotions, self-expression, relationships, past self, present self, future self.
Program (Study) Location: short-term, non-secure juvenile detention cities in New York City; program initiated in partnership with the NYC Division of Youth and Family Justice
Participant Type: Incarcerated adolescents aged 12 to 17
Sample Size: 53 (31 girls, 22 boys) total; 30 (18 girls12 boys) in intervention group; 23 (13 girls, 10 boys) in control group
Study Published: 2017
Data Type: quantitative, using Brief Resilience Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Ego Resilience Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule – Short Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State Shame and Guilt Scale-Revised
Evaluation Focus: participant satisfaction and mental-health outcomes of youth, including resiliency

Summary of Impact:
●  Participants reported high levels of satisfaction although numbers (roughly 85%) were the same between intervention and control groups.
●  Negative mental health outcomes of shame, guilt and negative affect did not significantly change over time across or within groups. Marginally significant increases in shame for WRITE ON participants with authors noting that symptom exacerbation may actually be a part of the recovery process.
●  Significant increase in positive mental health attributes, notably resilience KEYWORDS: expressive writing, juvenile, mental health, resilience, youth

KEYWORDS: expressive writing, juvenile, mental health, resilience, youth


43. Hickey, Maud. (2018). “We all Come Together to Learn About Music”: A Qualitative Analysis of a 5-Year Music Program in a Juvenile Detention Facility. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. published online March 21, 2018, 1-21.

Author Affiliations: Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
Artforms: Music composition, rap
Program: Music-composition program in youth detention center.
Program Description: Participants created at least one original music (mostly rap) composition after attending multi-lesson composition sessions.
Program (Study) Location: Cook County Juvenile Temporary Juvenile Detention Center, Chicago
Participant Type: Court-detained juveniles and adults, both men and women, aged 13-18
Sample Size: 717
Study Published: 2018
Data Type: Qualitative content analysis of written feedback and interviews. Evaluation Focus: “The purpose of this study was to uncover evidence that might support components of PYD [positive youth development] in a music composition program at an urban youth detention center.” Research questions were:
● “What reasons and evidence emerge that support positive aspects of the music program at an urban youth detention center, and how do these align with self-determination theory?”
● “What characteristics from the program might help to inform practices of programming in juvenile detention?”

Summary of Impact: The research found that “The three SDT [self-determination theory] constructs of competence, autonomy and relatedness are essential for the positive development of juvenile [participants in detention].” The creation of music seemed to especially boost participant sense of competence and joy for learning.

KEYWORDS: adult, autonomy, competence, music, music interactions rap, relatedness, positive feeling, positive youth development, self-determination theory


44. Kennedy, J. R. (2002). The Effects of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious Experience on the Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem of Juvenile Delinquents and Disadvantaged Children. In Deasy, Richard J., (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, pp 119-120.

Author Affiliations: Department of Music and Dance, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Artforms: Guitar, music
Program: Doctoral Dissertation
Program Description: Students were divided into five groups. All received 30-minute weekly guitar instruction and all but the control group also received 30 minutes of additional instruction, depending on the group. The groups were:
●  The Performance Only group received 30 minutes of instruction performance etiquette, strategies for achieving peak performance, memorization and musical expression then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Performance/Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of cognitive instruction (instruction in mental strategies for performing) and musical performance instruction (how to deal with performance anxiety) then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of the same cognitive instruction as the Performance/Cognitive group but were given no chance to rehearse these techniques or give solo performances.
●  The Vicarious Experience group received 30 minutes of watching performances followed by discussion of successful and failed performances.
●  The Control group received no arts instruction.
Program (Study) Location: Residential homes and juvenile detention centers Study Published: April 2002
Participant Type: Male juvenile offenders 8-19 years
Sample Size: 45
Data Type: Quantitative: Pre- and post-test using scales of self-esteem using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and musical self-efficacy (how confident participants felt about their musical ability)
Evaluation Focus: Effects of musical training and performance on self-efficacy and self-esteem of participants

Summary of Impact: Scores in Performance and Performance/Cognitive groups improved significantly. “The study demonstrated that guitar training coupled with repeated performance experiences improves both musical self-efficacy and self-esteem of these youth” (p. 119). Musical performance and musical performance coupled with cognitive strategies improve self-efficacy in at-risk youth. The study further suggests that “music training improves self esteem because the opportunity to perform helps youth overcome fears and helps them see that they can succeed” (p. 119).

KEYWORDS: guitar, juvenile, music, self-efficacy, self-esteem, youth


45. Lauby, J. L., LaPollo, A. B., Herbst, J. H., Painter, T. M., Batson, H., Pierre, A. & Milnamow, M. (October 2010). Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound: Efficacy of a Theater-Based HIV Prevention Intervention Delivered to High-Risk Male Adolescents in Juvenile Justice Settings. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(5), 402–416.

Author Affiliations: Public Health Management Corporation, Philadelphia (Lauby, LaPolllo, Batson, Pierre, Milnamow); Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (Herbst, Painter)
Artforms: Movement, sound, theater
Program: Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound (PALMS) Program Description: PALMS is a theater-based HIV prevention intervention designed for groups of 8 to 20 adolescents and led by a trained health educator. Trained actors portray dramatic performances of real-life situations often faced by adolescents and young adults. Games and role-playing exercises provide opportunities for participants to learn and practice communication and condom-use skills.
Program (Study) Location: Two juvenile justice facilities, Philadelphia, PA
Study Published: 2010
Participant Type: Institutionalized juvenile male offenders aged 12-18
Sample Size: 298
Data Type: Quantitative: nonrandomized concurrent comparison group design; assessment data collected at baseline immediately after the intervention Evaluation Focus: Effect of intervention on HIV and condom-use knowledge, changes in attitude towards HIV testing and persons living with HIV/AIDS, changes in condom use, changes in number of sexual partners (p. 404).

Summary of Impact: At 6-month follow-up, PALMS participants demonstrated greater increases in HIV and condom use knowledge and improved attitudes toward HIV testing and toward persons living with HIV/AIDS than did those in the comparison condition. PALMS participants were also significantly more likely to use a condom during their last sexual contact with a non-main female partner than comparison participants.

KEYWORDS: AIDS, condom use, drama, HIV, HIV testing, juvenile, movement, Preventing AIDS through Live Movement and Sound sound, theater, youth


46. Lazzari, M.M., Amundson, K.A., & Jackson, R.L. (2005). “We Are More Than Jailbirds”: An Arts Program for Incarcerated Young Women. Affilia: Journal of Women & Social Work, 20(Summer), 169-185.

Author Affiliations: Tacoma Social Work Program, University of Washington Artforms: Painting, poetry, sculpture, writing
Program: NA
Program Description: Arts workshops culminating in works produced for museum display
Program (Study) Location: Juvenile detention center, Western United States Study Published: 2005
Participant Type: Juvenile female offenders aged 11-17
Sample Size: 31
Data Type: Qualitative: Semi-structured interviews with youth participants and in-depth interview with teaching artist
Evaluation Focus: Social skills, violent behavior, self-identity

Summary of Impact: Improved relationship of participants to the artist, to other participants, their artwork, their families and communities, and themselves; increased empathy, caring, sense of community; shared responsibility; greater sense of self; reduced violent behavior

KEYWORDS: behavior, caring, community, empathy, juvenile, painting, poetry, relationships, sculpture, self-esteem, self-identity, social skills, violence, writing, youth