Ross, J. Art and Community: Creating Knowledge Through Service in Dance. In Deasy, R. J. (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development (p. 23). Washington, D.C.: Arts Education Partnership.

Ross, J. Art and Community: Creating Knowledge Through Service in Dance. In Deasy, R. J. (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development (p. 23). Washington, D.C.: Arts Education Partnership.

Author Affiliations: NA
Artforms: Dance
Program: NA
Program Description: Jazz and hip-hop dance classes
Program (Study)Location: NA
Study Presented: 2000
Participant Type: At-risk and Incarcerated adolescents aged 13-17
Sample Size: 60
Data Type: Qualitative: Teacher observation, interviews, reflection journals, in-class discussions, written syntheses
Evaluation Focus: This study sought to address the following questions: How does dance instruction affect self-perception and social development for at-risk and incarcerated adolescents? How does participant/observation research by undergraduates in a dance-centered service-learning project affect perceptions of the purposes of arts generally and dance specifically in the undergraduates’ and the lives of others? (p.12)

Summary of Impact: Produced hypotheses about why dance may be a medium particularly well suited to “fostering positive self-perception and social development for disenfranchised adolescents,” including the influence of teachers and teaching styles generally employed in dance; culturally valued leisure activities; the release of physical and psychological stress in which “expression, not conquest” is the activity’s goal (in contrast to team sports); the focus of instruction on practicing non-linguistic bodily expression, which is a primary vehicle through which maladaptive social behaviors are conveyed; and the need and opportunity in dance to express individuality within a group, which provides practice with issues central to developing positive social identity and adaptability” (p.23).
●  Dance may be a medium well suited to fostering positive self-perception and social development for disenfranchised adolescents.
●  Congruence of dance, service (providing data to prison administration about the dance program’s effectiveness), and research (placing college dance students in a social/therapeutic context and requiring reflection about impact and uses of the discipline) is an effective tool for advancing college students’ learning.

KEYWORDS: dance, hip-hop, jazz, juvenile, service learning, youth

School Board of Palm Beach County Department of Alternative Education. (2001). Analysis of Student Self-Assessments of Their Social Talents and Art Skills Taken Before and After Attending the “Artists-in-Residence” Programs at the Detention and Corrections in Palm Beach County. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs. October 29, 2001.

School Board of Palm Beach County Department of Alternative Education. (2001). Analysis of Student Self-Assessments of Their Social Talents and Art Skills Taken Before and After Attending the “Artists-in-Residence” Programs at the Detention and Corrections in Palm Beach County. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs. October 29, 2001.

Author Affiliations: NA
Artforms: dance, drama, music, visual arts
Program: Artists-in-Residence Alternative Arts Program
Program Description: Artists-in-Residence programs awarded to juvenile justice programs from VSA arts of Florida in partnership with the Florida Education Foundation.
Program (Study) Location: Roosevelt Full-Service Center, FIG, Palm Beach Youth Center, Palm Beach Half-Way House, all in Palm Beach County, Florida. Participant Type: incarcerated and adjudicated youth
Study Published: 2001
Data Type: pre- and post-self assessment questionnaires one for Social Talents and the other for Art Skills.
Evaluation Focus: participants’ social and artistic ability.

Summary of Impact:
●  Roosevelt Full-Service Center:
○  Substantial increase in social behavior
○  increase in art skills reported by most students
●  Florida Institute for Girls:
○ Overall decrease in both negative and positive responses, fear of authority figures decreased

KEYWORDS: attitudes, community, confidence, goal achievement, identity, juvenile, respect, self-esteem, stress, visual art, youth

Seroczynski, A.D., Evans, William, Jobst, Amy D., Horvath, Luke and Carozza, Guiliana. (2016). “Reading for Life and Adolescent Re-Arrest: Evaluating a Unique Juvenile Diversion Program.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35(2): 662-682.

Seroczynski, A.D., Evans, William, Jobst, Amy D., Horvath, Luke and Carozza, Guiliana. (2016). “Reading for Life and Adolescent Re-Arrest: Evaluating a Unique Juvenile Diversion Program.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35(2): 662-682.

Author Affiliations: University of Notre Dame (Seroczynski, Evans, Horvath, Carozza), Reading for Life, Inc. (Jobst)
Artforms: Bibliotherapy, literature, writingr  
Program: Reading for Life
Program Description: Reading for Life is diversion program in a medium-sized Midwestern town which “allows nonviolent, often first-time juvenile offenders to study works of literature in small groups led by trained volunteer mentors…. the intervention attempts to reduce recidivism through character education and moral development” (p. 663).
Program (Study) Location: Medium-sized Midwestern town
Participant Type: Nonviolent juvenile offenders aged 11 to 18
Sample Size: 194 offenders were randomized to the RFL treatment group and 214 to the control group.
Study Published: 2016
Data Type: Randomized controlled trial 
Evaluation Focus: Impact of program on recidivism

Summary of Impact: Authors reported a 13.2% reduction in reoffending of any type within two years of starting the program among RFL program participants. This represented a 36% reduction over the control group. RFL proved particularly successful at reducing serious offenses, reducing the likelihood of arrest for a prosecuted felony by 51% compared with the control group. 

KEYWORDS: bibliotherapy, character, juvenile, literature, reading, Reading For Life, recidivism, writing

Simmons, Lisa. (2017).  The Relationship between Delinquency and Creative Writing for Detailed Adolescent Males. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Simmons, Lisa. (2017).  The Relationship between Delinquency and Creative Writing for Detailed Adolescent Males. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Author Affiliations: Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Artforms: Creative writing, poetry, prose
Program: Writing Our Stories: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program (WOS)
Program Description: Writers teach poetry- and prose-writing skills to incarcerated youth in Alabama.
Program (Study) Location: Alabama
Study Published: Doctoral dissertation, 2017
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile offenders grades 8-12.
Sample Size: 461: 231 participating in WOS, 230 in control group
Data Type: Quantitative: Pre- and post-testing using oppositional and unruly subscales of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.
Evaluation Focus: Delinquency, intelligence, IQ

Summary of Impact: Statistically significant difference in pre- and post-treatment scores for WOS participants on the oppositional subscale of delinquency. No statistically significant scores from pre- and post-treatment on the unruly subscale of the MACI for either WOS participants or controls. No statistically significant difference in scores from pre- to post-detainment on the oppositional subscale in control group.

KEYWORDS: creative writing, delinquency, intelligence, IQ, juvenile, poetry, prose, writing, Writing Our Stories, youth

Smitherman, T. & Thompson, J. (June 2002). “Writing Our Stories”: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program. The Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 77-83.

Smitherman, T. & Thompson, J. (June 2002). “Writing Our Stories”: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program. The Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 77-83.

Author Affiliations: Alabama Department of Youth Services School District (Smitherman); Alabama Writers’ Forum, Inc. (Thompson)
Artforms: Creative writing, poetry, prose
Program: Writing Our Stories: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program
Program Description: Writers teach poetry and prose writing skills to incarcerated youth in Alabama.
Program (Study) Location: Alabama
Study Published: 2002
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile offenders aged 12-18 Sample Size: unspecified number
Data Type: Qualitative: pre- and post-testing, anecdotal data
Evaluation Focus: Self-esteem, writing skills

Summary of Impact: Impact information was anecdotal only with inconsistent results found on pre- and post-testing in different groups. Students submitted revised work for inclusion in the school’s anthology. Anthologies were considered “outcomes in themselves” (p. 79). As of Fall 2001, nine anthologies were in print from “Writing Our Stories” programs. Juvenile court judges, social workers, therapists, psychologists and teachers have responded positively to the anthologies .

KEYWORDS: creative writing, juvenile, poetry, prose, writing, Writing Our Stories , youth

Stewart, C., Rapp-Paglicci, L., and Rowe, W. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of the Prodigy prevention program across urban and rural locales. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 65-75.

Stewart, C., Rapp-Paglicci, L., and Rowe, W. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of the Prodigy prevention program across urban and rural locales. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 65-75.

Author Affiliations: University of South Florida School of Social Work
Artforms: Cultural arts, media arts, music, performing arts, visual arts
Program: Prodigy Cultural Arts Program
Program Description: The Prodigy Cultural Arts Program is a diversion program for youth aged 10-17 who have been adjudicated in the juvenile justice system, offering classes in the visual, performing, musical and media arts as an alternative to court. Programs, taught by master artists, run for eight weeks, with youth attending three hours per week. Goals are to build pro-social skills and reduce recidivism. Prodigy also has a prevention program geared to non-offending at-risk youth in the community.
Program (Study) Location: West Central Florida
Study Published: 2009
Participant Type: Adjudicated and at-risk youth aged 10-17
Sample Size: 350 adolescents and their parents
Data Type: Quantitative: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-test
Evaluation Focus: Mental health symptoms, delinquency, family functioning

Summary of Impact:
● Significant improvement in family functioning overall.
●  Statistically significant changes in mental health symptoms including depression/anxiety, somatic and suicidal symptoms for both males and females.
●  Females seemed to especially benefit from the program.

KEYWORDS: cultural arts, delinquency, family functioning, identity, juvenile, media arts, music, performing arts, Prodigy Cultural Arts Program, visual arts, youth

Uhler, Bethany Shaune (2020). Beyond the Corner: Incorporating Music Into a Juvenile Detention Center. University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Uhler, Bethany Shaune (2020). Beyond the Corner: Incorporating Music Into a Juvenile Detention Center. University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Author Affiliations: University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Artforms: Chamber music, string instruments
Program: Chatham Strings Program
Program (Study) Location: Chatham Youth Development Center, Siler City, North Carolina
Program Description: Detention-center youth are taught how to play violin, viola and cello in weekly group classes. They also perform in a chamber group as a way to learn new skills, have new experiences, practice pro-social behavior and have a positive outlet for emotions.
Study Published: Unpublished doctoral dissertation
Participant Type: Adjudicated youth aged 13-17
Sample Size: 8 teens: 1 White female, 3 Black females, 1 Hispanic female, 2 Black males and 1 white male
Data Type: Qualitative: personal interviews with youth and facility staff, field notes
Evaluation Focus: To explore the role music may play in rehabilitation and, specifically, to document any benefits experienced by members of a string ensemble.

Summary of Impact: The data analysis revealed four themes:

  • Exposure and New Experiences: All participants reported that the experience was entirely new to them.
  • Pride and Recognition: The youth reported “experiencing satisfaction in their success, realizing their potential to do something positive, receiving positive reinforcement from others, and making people they loved proud.”
  • Personal and Interpersonal Development: “Youth reflected that participation in the string program improved emotional release, behavior regulation, frustration tolerance, time management, communication skills and willingness to help others.”
  • Collaborating to Help Youth: Staff reported “that the string program contributed to the community effort of restorative justice.”

KEYWORDS: accomplishment, cello, chamber music, emotional release, juvenile, pro-social behavior, string instruments, viola, violin, youth

Warner, Susan (1999). Arts Programs for Incarcerated Youth: A National and International Comparative Study. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Antioch University, Seattle, WA.

Warner, Susan (1999). Arts Programs for Incarcerated Youth: A National and International Comparative Study. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Antioch University, Seattle, WA.

Author Affiliations: Experimental Gallery, Seattle
Artforms: Collage, drama, photography, poetry, video
Program: Experimental Gallery is a partnership between the Children’s Museum Seattle and the Department of Social and Health Services, Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration
Program Description: Arts programs for adjudicated youth.
Project (Study) Location: While the program operates in six locations in Washington State, the evaluation focused on three: Echo Glen Children’s Center, Maple Lane and Green Hill juvenile facilities
Study Published: 1999
Participant Type: Juvenile female offenders (Echo Glen) and juvenile male offenders (Maple Lane, Green Hill
Sample Size: unspecified number
Data Type: Qualitative: Observations, interviews, assessment forms from participants and visiting artists
Evaluation Focus: Research question: How do arts based, community programs educate and benefit incarcerated juvenile offenders?

Summary of Impact:
●  Improved behavior within confining institution.
●  Increased feelings of self-awareness or self-esteem.
●  Improved vocational skills.

KEYWORDS: behavior, collage, drama, Experimental Gallery, juvenile, photography, poetry, self-awareness, self-esteem, video, vocational skills, youth

Warner, S. (2000). Final Survey Report. In Hillman, G., Warner, S. and Shute, J. (Eds.), Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections: A Guide to Promising Practices, (pp. 33-37). Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and National Endowment for the Arts.

Warner, S. (2000). Final Survey Report. In Hillman, G., Warner, S. and Shute, J. (Eds.), Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections: A Guide to Promising Practices, (pp. 33-37). Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and National Endowment for the Arts.

Author Affiliations: Experimental Gallery, Seattle
Artforms: Dance, drama, literary arts, multimedia, performing arts, visual arts Program: NA
Program Description: Survey of juvenile-offender arts programs
Program (Study) Location: National U.S.
Study Published: 2002
Participant Type: Juvenile-offender arts programs
Sample Size: 120 surveys mailed out, 24 returned: 20% response rate
Data Type: Quantitative: Survey instrument
Evaluation Focus: Art disciplines utilized, number of youth involved, kinds of artists employed, products generated, budgets, founding dates, challenges facing field, impediments to growth

Summary of Impact: Evaluation focused on institutional characteristics and benefits rather than benefits to offenders and found that:
●  Most programs offered a multidisciplinary arts education model using a combination of contracted professional artists, art teachers from the local school district and volunteers.
●  43.2% of programs were founded in the 1990s.
●  3 programs had a history of 30 years or more.
●  Slightly less than half the programs employed some kind of formal evaluation process to measure success.
●  18 out of 23 programs requested technical assistance with the evaluation, making evaluation the most requested service; fund-raising and curriculum and program design were the next most requested; the lowest response for assistance was in community relations.
●  Evaluation was considered the weakest area for most programs.
●  Slightly less than half the programs offered academic credit for their participants but three programs had no means in place to measure the success of this provision.
●  About half of programs had budgets of $100,000 and over and half less than $50,000
●  16.8% received funding support from a correctional facility.
●  Reports of numbers of youth served fluctuated between 3,000 — 12; actual numbers of youth being served by all 24 programs could not be determined.

KEYWORDS: dance, drama, Experimental Gallery, juvenile, literary arts, multimedia, performing arts, visual arts, youth

Williams, R. Marie-Crane. (June 2008). The Status and Praxis of Arts Education and Juvenile Offenders in Correctional Facilities in the United States. The Journal of Correctional Education, (59) 2, 107-126.

Williams, R. Marie-Crane. (June 2008). The Status and Praxis of Arts Education and Juvenile Offenders in Correctional Facilities in the United States. The Journal of Correctional Education, (59) 2, 107-126.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: Dance, music, theater, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: NA
Program (Study) Location: U.S., and “Northeastern Training School (pseudonym)
Participant Type: Public residential juvenile correctional facilities
Sample Size: 175 respondents
Study Published: June 2008
Data Type: Quantitative and Qualitative: survey, interviews, case study; survey sent to all (478) public residential juvenile correctional facilities in U.S.
Evaluation Focus: Summarized the results of a national study conducted in 2001 sponsored by the National Art Education Association, which explored the intersection of arts education and corrections in residential detention facilities for juvenile offenders. Research questions were:
●  What is the status of arts education in public juvenile correctional facilities?
●  What do programs that combine art with juvenile justice and community re-entrance look like?
●  Why do the arts matter to juvenile offenders?

Summary of Impact:
●  36.6% (175) of 458 facilities responded to the survey.
●  57.14% of responding institutions had arts programs.
●  42.86% had no arts programming.
●  69% had long-term arts programming, most meeting daily.
●  23% had short-term programs, 35% of these met weekly.
●  most program sessions, both long-term and short-term, lasted less than one hour but more than 30 minutes.
●  73% of arts programs focused on visual arts.
●  9% on music/theater.
●  75 on visual arts/music.
●  4% on music/theater/dance.
●  3% on visual arts/theater.
●  2% on visual arts/dance.
●  1% theater.
●  1% music only.
●  65% used a written curriculum.
●  certified art teachers created over 55% of written curricula.
●  more than 50% of programs received funding from state sources.
●  20% of programs received funding from state arts programs.
●  10% were funded by state monies with private grants.
●  donations or petty cash funded less than 5%.
●  86% of respondents did not indicate whether the budget included the cost of a teacher/artist/facilitator.
●  34% of programs participated in some form of evaluation.
●  62% had no formal evaluation data.
●  more participants were male but, proportionally, more participants were female.
●  22% had mandatory participating.
●  20% participation was recommended by a teacher, counselor or staff member.
●  Staff and volunteers of the “Northeastern Training School” stated in interviews that the arts provided students with an appropriate outlet for their feelings.

KEYWORDS: dance, emotions, juvenile, music, theater, visual arts, youth