57. Simmons, Lisa. (2017).  The Relationship between Delinquency and Creative Writing for Detailed Adolescent Males. Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Author Affiliations: Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Artforms: Creative writing, poetry, prose
Program: Writing Our Stories: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program (WOS)
Program Description: Writers teach poetry- and prose-writing skills to incarcerated youth in Alabama.
Program (Study) Location: Alabama
Study Published: Doctoral dissertation, 2017
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile offenders grades 8-12.
Sample Size: 461: 231 participating in WOS, 230 in control group
Data Type: Quantitative: Pre- and post-testing using oppositional and unruly subscales of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.
Evaluation Focus: Delinquency, intelligence, IQ

Summary of Impact: Statistically significant difference in pre- and post-treatment scores for WOS participants on the oppositional subscale of delinquency. No statistically significant scores from pre- and post-treatment on the unruly subscale of the MACI for either WOS participants or controls. No statistically significant difference in scores from pre- to post-detainment on the oppositional subscale in control group.

KEYWORDS: creative writing, delinquency, intelligence, IQ, juvenile, poetry, prose, writing, Writing Our Stories, youth


58. Smitherman, T. & Thompson, J. (June 2002). “Writing Our Stories”: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program. The Journal of Correctional Education, 53(2), 77-83.

Author Affiliations: Alabama Department of Youth Services School District (Smitherman); Alabama Writers’ Forum, Inc. (Thompson)
Artforms: Creative writing, poetry, prose
Program: Writing Our Stories: An Anti-Violence Creative Writing Program
Program Description: Writers teach poetry and prose writing skills to incarcerated youth in Alabama.
Program (Study) Location: Alabama
Study Published: 2002
Participant Type: Incarcerated juvenile offenders aged 12-18 Sample Size: unspecified number
Data Type: Qualitative: pre- and post-testing, anecdotal data
Evaluation Focus: Self-esteem, writing skills

Summary of Impact: Impact information was anecdotal only with inconsistent results found on pre- and post-testing in different groups. Students submitted revised work for inclusion in the school’s anthology. Anthologies were considered “outcomes in themselves” (p. 79). As of Fall 2001, nine anthologies were in print from “Writing Our Stories” programs. Juvenile court judges, social workers, therapists, psychologists and teachers have responded positively to the anthologies .

KEYWORDS: creative writing, juvenile, poetry, prose, writing, Writing Our Stories , youth


59. Stewart, C., Rapp-Paglicci, L., and Rowe, W. (2009). Evaluating the efficacy of the Prodigy prevention program across urban and rural locales. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(1), 65-75.

Author Affiliations: University of South Florida School of Social Work
Artforms: Cultural arts, media arts, music, performing arts, visual arts
Program: Prodigy Cultural Arts Program
Program Description: The Prodigy Cultural Arts Program is a diversion program for youth aged 10-17 who have been adjudicated in the juvenile justice system, offering classes in the visual, performing, musical and media arts as an alternative to court. Programs, taught by master artists, run for eight weeks, with youth attending three hours per week. Goals are to build pro-social skills and reduce recidivism. Prodigy also has a prevention program geared to non-offending at-risk youth in the community.
Program (Study) Location: West Central Florida
Study Published: 2009
Participant Type: Adjudicated and at-risk youth aged 10-17
Sample Size: 350 adolescents and their parents
Data Type: Quantitative: Quasi-experimental pre- and post-test
Evaluation Focus: Mental health symptoms, delinquency, family functioning

Summary of Impact:
● Significant improvement in family functioning overall.
●  Statistically significant changes in mental health symptoms including depression/anxiety, somatic and suicidal symptoms for both males and females.
●  Females seemed to especially benefit from the program.

KEYWORDS: cultural arts, delinquency, family functioning, identity, juvenile, media arts, music, performing arts, Prodigy Cultural Arts Program, visual arts, youth


60. Uhler, Bethany Shaune (2020). Beyond the Corner: Incorporating Music Into a Juvenile Detention Center. University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Author Affiliations: University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Artforms: Chamber music, string instruments
Program: Chatham Strings Program
Program (Study) Location: Chatham Youth Development Center, Siler City, North Carolina
Program Description: Detention-center youth are taught how to play violin, viola and cello in weekly group classes. They also perform in a chamber group as a way to learn new skills, have new experiences, practice pro-social behavior and have a positive outlet for emotions.
Study Published: Unpublished doctoral dissertation
Participant Type: Adjudicated youth aged 13-17
Sample Size: 8 teens: 1 White female, 3 Black females, 1 Hispanic female, 2 Black males and 1 white male
Data Type: Qualitative: personal interviews with youth and facility staff, field notes
Evaluation Focus: To explore the role music may play in rehabilitation and, specifically, to document any benefits experienced by members of a string ensemble.

Summary of Impact: The data analysis revealed four themes:

  • Exposure and New Experiences: All participants reported that the experience was entirely new to them.
  • Pride and Recognition: The youth reported “experiencing satisfaction in their success, realizing their potential to do something positive, receiving positive reinforcement from others, and making people they loved proud.”
  • Personal and Interpersonal Development: “Youth reflected that participation in the string program improved emotional release, behavior regulation, frustration tolerance, time management, communication skills and willingness to help others.”
  • Collaborating to Help Youth: Staff reported “that the string program contributed to the community effort of restorative justice.”

KEYWORDS: accomplishment, cello, chamber music, emotional release, juvenile, pro-social behavior, string instruments, viola, violin, youth


60. Warner, Susan (1999). Arts Programs for Incarcerated Youth: A National and International Comparative Study. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Antioch University, Seattle, WA.

Author Affiliations: Experimental Gallery, Seattle
Artforms: Collage, drama, photography, poetry, video
Program: Experimental Gallery is a partnership between the Children’s Museum Seattle and the Department of Social and Health Services, Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration
Program Description: Arts programs for adjudicated youth.
Project (Study) Location: While the program operates in six locations in Washington State, the evaluation focused on three: Echo Glen Children’s Center, Maple Lane and Green Hill juvenile facilities
Study Published: 1999
Participant Type: Juvenile female offenders (Echo Glen) and juvenile male offenders (Maple Lane, Green Hill
Sample Size: unspecified number
Data Type: Qualitative: Observations, interviews, assessment forms from participants and visiting artists
Evaluation Focus: Research question: How do arts based, community programs educate and benefit incarcerated juvenile offenders?

Summary of Impact:
●  Improved behavior within confining institution.
●  Increased feelings of self-awareness or self-esteem.
●  Improved vocational skills.

KEYWORDS: behavior, collage, drama, Experimental Gallery, juvenile, photography, poetry, self-awareness, self-esteem, video, vocational skills, youth


61. Warner, S. (2000). Final Survey Report. In Hillman, G., Warner, S. and Shute, J. (Eds.), Arts Programs for Juvenile Offenders in Detention and Corrections: A Guide to Promising Practices, (pp. 33-37). Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and National Endowment for the Arts.

Author Affiliations: Experimental Gallery, Seattle
Artforms: Dance, drama, literary arts, multimedia, performing arts, visual arts Program: NA
Program Description: Survey of juvenile-offender arts programs
Program (Study) Location: National U.S.
Study Published: 2002
Participant Type: Juvenile-offender arts programs
Sample Size: 120 surveys mailed out, 24 returned: 20% response rate
Data Type: Quantitative: Survey instrument
Evaluation Focus: Art disciplines utilized, number of youth involved, kinds of artists employed, products generated, budgets, founding dates, challenges facing field, impediments to growth

Summary of Impact: Evaluation focused on institutional characteristics and benefits rather than benefits to offenders and found that:
●  Most programs offered a multidisciplinary arts education model using a combination of contracted professional artists, art teachers from the local school district and volunteers.
●  43.2% of programs were founded in the 1990s.
●  3 programs had a history of 30 years or more.
●  Slightly less than half the programs employed some kind of formal evaluation process to measure success.
●  18 out of 23 programs requested technical assistance with the evaluation, making evaluation the most requested service; fund-raising and curriculum and program design were the next most requested; the lowest response for assistance was in community relations.
●  Evaluation was considered the weakest area for most programs.
●  Slightly less than half the programs offered academic credit for their participants but three programs had no means in place to measure the success of this provision.
●  About half of programs had budgets of $100,000 and over and half less than $50,000
●  16.8% received funding support from a correctional facility.
●  Reports of numbers of youth served fluctuated between 3,000 — 12; actual numbers of youth being served by all 24 programs could not be determined.

KEYWORDS: dance, drama, Experimental Gallery, juvenile, literary arts, multimedia, performing arts, visual arts, youth


62. Williams, R. Marie-Crane. (June 2008). The Status and Praxis of Arts Education and Juvenile Offenders in Correctional Facilities in the United States. The Journal of Correctional Education, (59) 2, 107-126.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: Dance, music, theater, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: NA
Program (Study) Location: U.S., and “Northeastern Training School (pseudonym)
Participant Type: Public residential juvenile correctional facilities
Sample Size: 175 respondents
Study Published: June 2008
Data Type: Quantitative and Qualitative: survey, interviews, case study; survey sent to all (478) public residential juvenile correctional facilities in U.S.
Evaluation Focus: Summarized the results of a national study conducted in 2001 sponsored by the National Art Education Association, which explored the intersection of arts education and corrections in residential detention facilities for juvenile offenders. Research questions were:
●  What is the status of arts education in public juvenile correctional facilities?
●  What do programs that combine art with juvenile justice and community re-entrance look like?
●  Why do the arts matter to juvenile offenders?

Summary of Impact:
●  36.6% (175) of 458 facilities responded to the survey.
●  57.14% of responding institutions had arts programs.
●  42.86% had no arts programming.
●  69% had long-term arts programming, most meeting daily.
●  23% had short-term programs, 35% of these met weekly.
●  most program sessions, both long-term and short-term, lasted less than one hour but more than 30 minutes.
●  73% of arts programs focused on visual arts.
●  9% on music/theater.
●  75 on visual arts/music.
●  4% on music/theater/dance.
●  3% on visual arts/theater.
●  2% on visual arts/dance.
●  1% theater.
●  1% music only.
●  65% used a written curriculum.
●  certified art teachers created over 55% of written curricula.
●  more than 50% of programs received funding from state sources.
●  20% of programs received funding from state arts programs.
●  10% were funded by state monies with private grants.
●  donations or petty cash funded less than 5%.
●  86% of respondents did not indicate whether the budget included the cost of a teacher/artist/facilitator.
●  34% of programs participated in some form of evaluation.
●  62% had no formal evaluation data.
●  more participants were male but, proportionally, more participants were female.
●  22% had mandatory participating.
●  20% participation was recommended by a teacher, counselor or staff member.
●  Staff and volunteers of the “Northeastern Training School” stated in interviews that the arts provided students with an appropriate outlet for their feelings.

KEYWORDS: dance, emotions, juvenile, music, theater, visual arts, youth


63. Wolf, Dennie Palmer and Holochwost, Steven. (2015). Our Voices Count: The Potential Impact of Strength-Based Music Programs in Juvenile Justice Settings.

Author Affiliations: WolfBrown
Artforms: Choir, music, songwriting
Program: Our Voices Count
Program Description: Juvenile offenders in detention facilities participated in a 12-session program spanning two weeks during which they participate in a choir performing a traditional repertoire while also writing their own songs and lyrics. Our Voices Count was a collaborative project between Carnegie Hall’s Musical Connections program and the New York City Administration for Children’s Services.
Program (Study) Location: Two secure juvenile detention facilities in New York City
Participant Type: Male and female youth offenders, average age 15 years Sample Size: 54
Study Published: Organizational publication, 2015
Data Type: Mixed-methods design using pre- and post-residency assessment. Evaluation Focus: Whether ensemble-based music could create a more positive environment inside secure detention facilities as well as stronger social relations, more constructive behavior and a changed sense of self among participants.

Summary of Impact:
●  At both facilities, reduction in participants’ externalizing, or acting-out behaviors following participation in program.
●  Across facilities 75% of participants completed the program, earning a half-course credit toward high-school graduation from their on-site or future New York City high school.
●  Nearly two thirds of young people across both facilities reported spending time between sessions working on music in their free time, thus “acting as agents to set and work towards a longer-term goal.”
●  More than two thirds of residents reported working with other offenders, professional artists, and facility staff, during rehearsal and during free-time activities.
●  Nearly half of participants reported changes in multiple areas of personal well-being including positive emotional state, sense of achievement, self-esteem and self-confidence.
●  Participants at one facility had statistically higher rates of earning high-school credit, built stronger social networks, were more likely to complete the program and exhibited lower levels of disengaged or disruptive behaviors than at the other facility.
●  The facility where youth demonstrated these gains had steadily reduced use of involuntary room confinements and physical restraints, versus the second facility.

KEYWORDS: choir, confidence, juvenile, music, sense of self, social skills, voice, youth