44. Kennedy, J. R. (2002). The Effects of Musical Performance, Rational Emotive Therapy and Vicarious Experience on the Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem of Juvenile Delinquents and Disadvantaged Children. In Deasy, Richard J., (Ed.), Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development. Washington, DC: Arts Education Partnership, pp 119-120.

Author Affiliations: Department of Music and Dance, University of Kansas, Lawrence
Artforms: Guitar, music
Program: Doctoral Dissertation
Program Description: Students were divided into five groups. All received 30-minute weekly guitar instruction and all but the control group also received 30 minutes of additional instruction, depending on the group. The groups were:
●  The Performance Only group received 30 minutes of instruction performance etiquette, strategies for achieving peak performance, memorization and musical expression then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Performance/Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of cognitive instruction (instruction in mental strategies for performing) and musical performance instruction (how to deal with performance anxiety) then gave solo performances to their peers.
●  The Cognitive Strategy group received 30 minutes of the same cognitive instruction as the Performance/Cognitive group but were given no chance to rehearse these techniques or give solo performances.
●  The Vicarious Experience group received 30 minutes of watching performances followed by discussion of successful and failed performances.
●  The Control group received no arts instruction.
Program (Study) Location: Residential homes and juvenile detention centers Study Published: April 2002
Participant Type: Male juvenile offenders 8-19 years
Sample Size: 45
Data Type: Quantitative: Pre- and post-test using scales of self-esteem using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and musical self-efficacy (how confident participants felt about their musical ability)
Evaluation Focus: Effects of musical training and performance on self-efficacy and self-esteem of participants

Summary of Impact: Scores in Performance and Performance/Cognitive groups improved significantly. “The study demonstrated that guitar training coupled with repeated performance experiences improves both musical self-efficacy and self-esteem of these youth” (p. 119). Musical performance and musical performance coupled with cognitive strategies improve self-efficacy in at-risk youth. The study further suggests that “music training improves self esteem because the opportunity to perform helps youth overcome fears and helps them see that they can succeed” (p. 119).

KEYWORDS: guitar, juvenile, music, self-efficacy, self-esteem, youth

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