11.

11. Cohen, M.L. (2012). ‘Safe Havens’: The Formation and Practice of Prison Choirs in the US. In Cheliotis, L. K. (Ed.) The Arts of Imprisonment: Control, Resistance and Empowerment. Surrey, UK: Ashgate.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: choir, music, singing
Program: NA
Program Description: Community member and prison choir
Program (Study) Location: Kansas, Ohio, Minnesota
Participant Type: Adult male inmates, volunteer choir conductors, audience members
Sample Size: 7 volunteer prison-choir conductors, 35 audience members, unspecified number of male inmates.
Study Published: 2012
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Multiple case studies using open-ended questionnaires completed by seven prison choir conductors; observations of rehearsals and performances; informal interviews with inmates; data from an online survey completed by 35 audience members; field notes, and researcher reflections. Open coding, axial coding, and selective coding were used to analyze data.
Evaluation Focus: Perceived impact of five U.S. male prison choirs

Summary of Impact: In addition to developing choral singing skills such as body alignment, breath management, tonal placement and diction, the choral experiences provided a means for inmates to develop self esteem, promote positive social interactions, and increase sense of group responsibility.

KEYWORDS: adult, choir, group responsibility, music, self-esteem, singing, social interactions

12.

12. Cohen, M.L. ( 2007). Explorations of inmate and volunteer choral experiences among a prison-based choir. Australian Journal of Music Education, 1, 61-72.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: Choir, music, singing
Program: NA
Program Description: Community member and prison choir
Program (Study) Location: Minimum-security state prison, Midwest
U.S. Study Published: 2007
Participant Type: Adult male inmates aged 21-53, adult volunteers aged 35-82 Sample Size: 44 (20 inmates and 24 volunteers)
Data Type: Quantitative and Qualitative
●  Quantitative: Survey instrument consisting of: (a) demographic questions; (b) seven Likert-scale items on perception of intonation, sense of accomplishment, choir participation upon release, self-reflection; (c) four open-ended items about participants’ most positive and negative experiences and their reasons for joining; and (d) any further comments
●  Qualitative: Interviews with 29 participants (17 inmates and 12 volunteers), participant observations, field notes
Evaluation Focus: Participants’ experiences in a joint inmate-community volunteer choir

Summary of Impact:
● Quantitative: Both inmates and volunteers indicated that their participation afforded: “(a) means to a peak experience with momentary disappearance of stresses and (b) a sense of accomplishment. Inmates perceived more improvement in intrapersonal skills than volunteers while volunteers reported more success in identifying out-of-tune singing than inmates” (p. 61).
● Qualitative: “Choral music education experiences, approached more comprehensively than simply promoting interaction between individual singers and a musical score, may carry potential for transformative personal and interpersonal change in prison choir contexts” (p. 61).

KEYWORDS: adult, choir, intrapersonal skills, music, sense of accomplishment, singing, stress

13.

13. Cohen, M.L. (2012) Harmony within the walls: Perceptions of worthiness and competence in a community prison choir. International Journal of Music Education, 30(1), 46-55.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: Choir, music, singing
Program: Community Member and Prison Choir
Program Description: Choir program met for twelve consecutive weeks and concluded with two community-prison performances in the prison gymnasium.
Program (Study) Location: Medium-security state prison, Midwest U.S.
Study Published: 2012
Participant Type: Adult male inmates aged 20-70, community singers aged 20-64
Sample Size: 44 (22 inmates and 22 community members)
Data Type: Mixed Method. Quantitative (Attitudes Toward Prisons Scale); and Qualitative (Open-ended questionnaire)
Evaluation Focus: This study measured changes in community singers’ attitudes toward inmates, and documented changes in inmate singers’ perceptions of their social competence (p. 46). Changes in community singers’ attitudes toward inmates, and changes in prison singers’ perceptions of their social competence were measured using the Attitudes Towards Prisoners Scale (ATPS) in pre and post participation measurements.

Summary of Impact: The pre and post measurements of the community singers’ attitudes towards inmates showed significant improvement. The data indicates that participation in the choir had a positive impact on the community members’ attitude toward the inmates, changing previously held stereotypes. Open-ended responses from inmates revealed they felt respected, made friends, increased connections outside the prison, and improved family relationships.

KEYWORDS: adult, choir, music, relationships, respect, self-esteem, self-gratification, medium-security prison, singing, social competence

14.

14. Cohen, Mary L. and Wilson, Catherine, M. (2017). Inside the fences: Pedagogical practices and purposes of songwriting in an adult male U.S. state prison. International Journal of Music Education, February 3, 2017, 1-13.

Author Affiliations: University of Iowa, Iowa City
Artforms: music, songwriting
Program: NA
Program Description: 35-week program comprised of two 13-week, 60-minute workshops and one nine-week 90-minute workshop
Program (Study) Location: Midwest U.S. male medium security state prison Participant Type: Adult males
Sample Size: 17
Study Published: 2017
Data Type: Qualitative: Grounded theory, analyzed four types of data: 42 sets of original lyrics, written reflections, transcriptions of four workshop sessions and narrative data from participants
Evaluation Focus: self-worth, purpose, social adjustment

Summary of Impact: “Our findings indicated that the collaborative and social nature of the songwriting workshops provided a supportive atmosphere where participants generated new songs for enjoyment and expression. Participants wrote bout struggles and hardships, especially relationship problems, and our data suggested that the discussions about song topics help them cope with their incarceration.”

KEYWORDS: adult, music, relationships, social, songwriting

15.

15. Dunphy, K. (1999). A creative arts performance program for incarcerated women: The arts of transforming shame. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 26(1), 35-43.

Author Affiliations: Community arts dance specialist, Melbourne, Australia
Artforms: Movement, visual arts, and writing
Program: Keeping the Faith – The Prison Project
Program Description: Keeping the Faith, a program of the Pat Graney Company, is a multi-arts performance program consisting of sessions in dance, creative writing, singing and visual arts: “The Prison Project is an arts-based educational residency program designed to enable incarcerated women and girls to discover a sense of identity and to develop that identity within the context of community—through the vehicles of performance, video documentation and a published anthology of their writings. The Pat Graney Company has conducted this three-month program of movement, writing, and visual art in Washington State Corrections Centers for the past 15 years” (http://www.patgraney.org/education.html ). Each workshop lasts three months (meeting twice a week) and culminates in a series of performances open to prison inmates, staff, families and selected visitors.
Program (Study) Location: Washington Corrections Center for Women, Gig Harbor, Washington
Participant Type: Adult female inmates aged 15 to 40.
Sample Size: NA
Study Published: 1999
Data Type: Qualitative/interpretive inquiry: Interviews conducted with program director, staff and participants; questionnaires administered to inmates and staff; participant observation; analysis of inmates’ creative writing
Evaluation Focus: The study focused on examining the benefits of participation in the program for inmates, artist facilitators, and staff, particularly in self-esteem, positive and creative life skills, and in the meaning of dance involvement.

Summary of Impact: Inmate participants self-reported increased self-esteem as a result of mastery of new skills. Other benefits reported were bonding with others, shared meaningful experiences, and deepened friendships. Improved skills in conflict resolution, bonding, trust, and intimacy were reported by inmates and corroborated by staff. Staff also reported an increase in group collaboration. The program provided positive links with the outside world, including, family and friends. Improvements benefited individuals, general prison population as well as the wider community.

KEYWORDS: adult, creative writing, dance, Keeping the Faith , music, self esteem, singing, visual arts

16.

16. Gussak, D. (2004). Art therapy with prison inmates: A pilot study. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 31(4), 245-259.

Author Affiliations: Florida State University
Artforms: Art therapy, drawing, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: A four-week pilot program during which inmates met twice a week in group art therapy sessions.
Program (Study) Location: Medium to maximum security correctional institution, Florida
Study Published: 2004
Participant Type: Adult male inmates aged 21-63
Sample Size: 39
Data Type: Quantitative, case studies: Quasi-experimental, pre- and post-survey by mental-health counselors; standardized art therapy assessment using the Format Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS).
Evaluation Focus: Changes in inmate behavior and attitude including improvement in mood, socialization and problem-solving abilities; inmates’ interactions and compliance with prison rules and expectations

Summary of Impact: Improvements in attitude, mood, compliance with staff and rules and socialization skills were noted as well as a decrease in depressive symptoms. No improvement was indicated in problem-solving skills.

KEYWORDS: adult, art therapy, attitude, behavior, compliance, depression, drawing, mood, problem-solving, socialization, visual arts

17.

17. Gussak, D. (2009). Comparing the effectiveness of art therapy in depression and locus of control of male and female inmates. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36, 202-207.

Author Affiliations: The Florida State University
Artforms: Art therapy, drawing, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: Visual art therapy program
Program (Study) Location: Two medium- to maximum-security adult correctional facilities, Florida
Study Published: 2009
Participant Type: Male and female adult inmates, aged 20-51
Sample Size: 147 female, 72 male
Data Type: Qualitative, Quantitative: Control group pre and post-test design; psychological assessments using The Beck Inventory-Short form (BDI-II) and Adult Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (ANS)
Evaluation Focus: The study evaluated changes in mood and locus of control among both male and female inmates who participated in the arts program. It also looked at differences in outcomes between male and female participants.

Summary of Impact: Both male and female participants showed improvements in mood and locus of control. The data indicated a trend towards greater improvement in mood and internal locus of control for female inmates as a result of the participation in the visual art therapy program (p. 202).

KEYWORDS: adult, art therapy, depression, drawing, locus of control, mood, visual arts

18.

18. Gussak, D. (2007). The Effectiveness of Art Therapy in Reducing Depression in Prison Populations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51(4), 444-60.

Author Affiliations: Florida State University
Artforms: Art therapy, drawing, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: A four-week pilot program during which inmates met twicea week in group art therapy sessions.
Program (Study) Location: Medium to maximum security adult male prison, Florida
Study Published: 2008
Participant Type: Adult male inmates, aged 21-63
Sample Size: Unspecified number of male adult inmates
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Control group pre-test/post-test assessments using Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II) and Adult Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale (ANS)
Evaluation Focus: The study evaluated changes in mood and locus of control among inmates.

Summary of Impact: This study combined data from two earlier studies by the same author: “Art therapy with prison inmates: A pilot study,” 2004; and “The effects of art therapy with prison inmates: A follow-up study,” 2006, which were published in The Arts in Psychotherapy. The author concludes that while FEATS was more effective as a measurement tool in the pilot study than in the follow-up study, “ultimately, the results reflected a significant decrease in depressive symptoms in those inmates who participated in the program” (p. 444).

KEYWORDS: adult, art therapy, depression, drawing, locus of control, mood, visual arts

19.

19. Gussak, D. (2009). The effects of art therapy on male, female inmates: advancing the research base. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 36(1), p. 5-12.

Author Affiliations: Florida State University
Artforms: Art therapy, drawing, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: Visual art therapy program
Program (Study) Location: Two medium to maximum security adult correctional facilities, one female and one male, Florida
Study Published: 2008
Participant Type: Adult male and female inmates, aged 20-51
Sample Size: Unspecified number of adult male and female inmates
Data Type: Quantitative, Qualitative: Control group pre-test/post-test assessments using Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II) and Adult Nowicki Strickland Locus of Control Scale (ANS)
Evaluation Focus: The study evaluated changes in mood and locus of control among both male and female inmates.

Summary of Impact: Results from FEATS did not yield supportive data; results of BDI-II and ANS supported the hypothesis that art therapy was effective in reducing depression and improving locus of control in the adult male and female inmates.

KEYWORDS: adult, art therapy, depression, drawing, locus of control, mood, visual arts

20.

20. Gussak, D. (2006). The effects of art therapy with prison inmates: A follow-up study. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 33, 188-198.

Author Affiliations: Florida State University
Artforms: Art therapy, drawing, visual arts
Program: NA
Program Description: Visual art therapy program
Program (Study) Location: Medium to maximum security correctional facility, Florida
Study Published: 2006
Participant Type: Adult male inmates aged 21-59
Sample Size: 16
Data Type: Qualitative, Case Study: Pre- and post-survey assessments by mental health counselors; standardized art therapy assessment using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), and psychological assessment using the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II). Volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The control group received no art therapy sessions. The experimental group attended group art therapy sessions over an eight-week period.
Evaluation Focus: Changes in inmate behavior and attitude, including changes in mood, socialization and problem-solving abilities; inmates’ interactions and compliance with prison rules and expectations.

Summary of Impact: Results from the different assessment instruments were mixed. There was a marked improvement in mood as measured by BDI-II, but not as measured by FEATS. No changes in socialization or problem-solving abilities were indicated.

KEYWORDS: adult, art therapy, attitude, behavior, compliance, depression, drawing, mood, problem-solving, socialization