Williams, R. Marie-Crane. (June 2008). The Status and Praxis of Arts Education and Juvenile Offenders in Correctional Facilities in the United States. The Journal of Correctional Education, (59) 2, 107-126.
Author Affiliations: University of Iowa
Artforms: Dance, music, theater, visual arts
Program Description: NA
Program (Study) Location: U.S., and “Northeastern Training School (pseudonym)
Participant Type: Public residential juvenile correctional facilities
Sample Size: 175 respondents
Study Published: June 2008
Data Type: Quantitative and Qualitative: survey, interviews, case study; survey sent to all (478) public residential juvenile correctional facilities in U.S.
Evaluation Focus: Summarized the results of a national study conducted in 2001 sponsored by the National Art Education Association, which explored the intersection of arts education and corrections in residential detention facilities for juvenile offenders. Research questions were:
● What is the status of arts education in public juvenile correctional facilities?
● What do programs that combine art with juvenile justice and community re-entrance look like?
● Why do the arts matter to juvenile offenders?
Summary of Impact:
● 36.6% (175) of 458 facilities responded to the survey.
● 57.14% of responding institutions had arts programs.
● 42.86% had no arts programming.
● 69% had long-term arts programming, most meeting daily.
● 23% had short-term programs, 35% of these met weekly.
● most program sessions, both long-term and short-term, lasted less than one hour but more than 30 minutes.
● 73% of arts programs focused on visual arts.
● 9% on music/theater.
● 75 on visual arts/music.
● 4% on music/theater/dance.
● 3% on visual arts/theater.
● 2% on visual arts/dance.
● 1% theater.
● 1% music only.
● 65% used a written curriculum.
● certified art teachers created over 55% of written curricula.
● more than 50% of programs received funding from state sources.
● 20% of programs received funding from state arts programs.
● 10% were funded by state monies with private grants.
● donations or petty cash funded less than 5%.
● 86% of respondents did not indicate whether the budget included the cost of a teacher/artist/facilitator.
● 34% of programs participated in some form of evaluation.
● 62% had no formal evaluation data.
● more participants were male but, proportionally, more participants were female.
● 22% had mandatory participating.
● 20% participation was recommended by a teacher, counselor or staff member.
● Staff and volunteers of the “Northeastern Training School” stated in interviews that the arts provided students with an appropriate outlet for their feelings.
KEYWORDS: dance, emotions, juvenile, music, theater, visual arts, youth